s. x or xi. Will of Wynflæd concerning land at Ebbesborne, Wilts.; Charlton (probably Horethorne, Somerset); Coleshill, Berks.; Inggeneshamme (perhaps Inglesham, Wilts.); Faccombe, Hants; Adderbury, Oxon.; and at Chinnock, Somerset; the beneficiaries including Shaftesbury and Wilton. English


uncertain (? Shaftesbury)


1. London, British Library, Cotton Charters viii. 38 (s. xi; BM Facs., iii. 38; Golden Age, p. 148)


Hickes, Thesaurus, praefatio, pp. xxii-xxiii; K, 1290


Sawyer, Burton, pp. xv-xix

Printed and Translated:

Thorpe, pp. 533-9; Whitelock, Wills, no. 3 (pp. 10-15)


BM Facs., iv, p. 7, 11th century; Whitelock, Wills, pp. 108-14, may be a copy; PN Oxon., ii. 391; Darlington 1955, pp. 68, 84; Aston 1958, p. 71, on tenurial implications; Finberg, ECW, no. 71, authentic; Finberg 1972, pp. 474, 498, 509-10; PN Berks., ii. 356-7, 375, 470; PN Dorset, iii. 139; Gelling, ECTV, no. 59 (pp. 41, 129), authentic; Owen 1979; Rumble 1984, pp. 50-1, on name-forms; Golden Age, pp. 148-9 (no. 151), 11th-century copy; Costen 1991, p. 44, on Chinnock estate, with map; Hooke 1991-2, p. 83, on Faccombe; Dumville 1994, p. 146 n. 75, script not mid 10th-century, suggested date c. 950 is speculative and too early; Pelteret 1995, pp. 126-9, 288; Faith 1997, p. 81; Foot 2000, II. 172-3, 225; Wareham 2001, pp. 381-3; Thompson 2006, p. 78, on script

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    • Wynflæd declares how she wishes to dispose of what she possesses, after her death. She bequeathes to the church her offering - ...... and the better of her offering-cloths, and her cross; and to the refectory two silver cups for the community; and as a gift for the good of her soul a mancus of gold to every servant of God, and besides that one mancus to Ceolthryth and Othelbriht and Elsa and Æthel...th; and one pound to the community at Wilton and one mancus to Fugel. And she bequeathes to her daughter Æthelflæd her engraved bracelet and her brooch, and the estate at Ebbesborne and the title-deed as a perpetual inheritance to dispose of as she pleases; and she grants to her the men and the stock and all that is on the estate except what shall be given from it both in men and stock for the sake of her soul. And at Charlton, also, she grants her the men and the stock except the freedmen, and except that a gift for her soul to the value of half a pound be supplied for Milborne from the stock at Charlton, and from Chinnock a gift for her soul to the value of half a pound for Yeovil. And to Eadmær [she grants] the estates at Coleshill and Inglesham (?), and she grants to him also the estate at Faccombe, which was her marriage-gift, for his lifetime, and then after his death, if Æthelflæd survive him, she is to succeed to the estate at Faccombe, and after her death it is to revert to Eadwold's possession. And if it is God's will that Eadwold be old enough in his father's lifetime to hold land, then I ask Eadmær to relinquish to him one of two estates, either Coleshill or Adderbury, and after his lifetime, both. And at Inglesham (?) she wishes that there be furnished on her behalf for Wantage a gift for her soul worth half a pound, and [the same] at Coleshill; and that from the stock the equivalent of sixty pence be supplied for Shrivenham, sixty for Coleshill and sixty for Childrey. And Wulfwaru is to be freed, and she is to serve whom she pleases, and ...ttryth also. And Wulfflæd is to be freed on condition that she serve Æthelflæd and Eadgifu. And she bequeathes to Eadgifu a woman-weaver and a seamstress the one called Eadgifu, the other called Æthelgifu. And Gerburg is to be freed, and Miscin and Hi...... and the daughter of Burhulf at Chinnock, and Ælfsige and his wife and elder daughter, and Ceolstan's wife. And at Charlton Pifus and Eadwyn and ...Æs wife are to be freed. And at Faccombe Eadhelm and Man and Johanna and Sprow and his wife and En...... and Gersand and Snel are to be freed. And at Coleshill Æthelgyth and Bica's wife and Æffa and Beda and Gurhann's wife are to be freed; and Wulfwaru's sister, Brihtsige's wife, and ...... the wright, and Wulfgyth, Ælfswith's daughter are to be freed. And if there be any penally enslaved man besides these whom she has enslaved, she trusts to her children that they will release him for her soul's sake. And [she grants] to Ælfwold her two buffalo-horns and a horse and her red tent. And she bequeathes to Eadmær a cup with a lid, and another to Æthelflæd, and prays that between them they will furnish two fair goblets to the refectory for her sake, or augment her own ornamented cups ...... worth one pound. Then she would like half a pound of pence to be put into each cup, and that Eadwold should be given back his own two silver cups. And she bequeathes to him her gold-adorned wooden cup in order that he may enlarge his armlet with the gold, or that he may receive sixteen mancuses of red gold in exchange; that amount has been put on it. And she bequeathes to him two chests and in them a set of bed-clothing, all that belongs to one bed. And Eadmær is to pay to Eadwold as much stock and as many men as he (?) has bequeathed to him at Avon, and he afterwards [is to pay] to his father what he wishes. And with regard to the estate at Chinnock, the community at Shaftesbury possess it after her death, and she owns the stock and the men; this being so, she grants to the community the peasants who dwell on the rented land, and the bondmen she grants to her son's daughter Eadgifu, and also the stock, except the gift for her soul which must be rendered to Yeovil; and she wishes that six oxen and four cows with four calves be allowed to remain on the estate. And of the bondmen at Chinnock she bequeathes to Eadwold, Ceolstan, Eadstan's son, and Æffa's son, and Burhwyn [and] Martin and Hisfig; and in their place she bequeathes to Eadgifu, Ælfsige the cook and Ælfwaru, Burga's daughter, and Herestan and his wife, and Ecghelm and his wife and their child, and Cynestan and Wynsige and Brihtric's son and Eadwyn and Bunele's son and Ælfhere's daughter. And she bequeathes to Æthelflæd, daughter of Ealhhelm, Ælfhere's younger daughter, and her double badger-skin (?) gown, and another of linen or else some linen cloth. And to Eadgifu two chests and in them her best bed-curtain and a linen covering and all the bed-clothing which goes with it, and ...... and her best dun tunic, and the better of her cloaks, and her two wooden cups ornamented with dots, and her old filagree brooch which is worth six mancuses. And let there be given to her four mancuses from her ...... and a long hall-tapestry and a short one and three seat coverings. And she grants to Ceolthryth whichever she prefers of her black tunics and her best holy veil and her best headband; and to Æthelflæd the White her ...... gown and cap and headband, and afterwards Æthelflæd is to supply from her nun's vestments the best she can for Wulfflæd and Æthelgifu and supplement it with gold so that each of them shall have at least sixty pennyworth: and for Ceolwyn and Eadburg it shall be thirty pennyworth. And there are two large chests and a clothes' chest, and a little spinning box and two old chests. Then she makes a gift to Æthelflæd of everything which is unbequeathed, books and such small things, and she trusts that she will be mindful of her soul. And there are also tapestries, one which is suitable for her, and the smallest she can give to her women. And she bequeathes to Cynelufu her share of the untamed horses which are with Eadmær's. And to Æthelflæd she grants her ...... and the utensils and all the useful things that are inside, and also the homestead if the king grant it to her as King Edward granted it to Brihtwyn her mother. And Eadwold and his sister are to have her tame horses in common. ...
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    • Wynflæd cy∂ hu hio wile ymbe ˇæt hio hæf∂ ofer hyre dæg hio becwiˇ into cyrcan hyre ofring...u 7 hyre beteran ofr'i'ngsceat 7 hyre rode 7 into beodern hiwun twa selefrene cuppan 7 hyre to saulsceatte ælcon godes ˇeowe mancos go[ld]es 7 butan ˇam Ceoldryˇe I mancus 7 O∂elbryhte 7 Else 7 Æˇel...ˇea 7 an pund to Wiltune ˇam hiwum 7 Fugele anne mancus 7 hio becwi∂ Æ∂elflæde hyre dehter hyre agrafenan beah 7 'hyre mentelpreon' 7 ˇæt land æt Ebbelesburnan 7 ˇa boc on ece yrfe to ateonne swa hyre leofos∂ sy 7 hio [an h]yre ˇara manna 7 ˇæs yrfes 7 ealles ˇæs ˇe ˇær ˇenne on bi∂ butan ˇæt man scel for hyre saulle ˇærof don ægˇer ge an mannon ge an yrfe 7 æt Ceorlatune hio hyre an ealswa ˇere manna 7 ˇæs yrfes b[ut]an ˇam freotmannon 7 ˇæt man finde of ˇam yrfe æt Ceorlatun[e healfes]b pundes wyrˇne saulsceat to Mylenburnan 7 healfes pundes wyrˇne saulscet fram Cinnuc to Gyfle 7 Eadmære ˇæt land æt C[ol]les[h]ylle 7 æt Inggeneshamme 7 hio an him eac ˇæs landes æt Faccancu[mbe ˇe]c hyre morgengyfu wes his dæg 7 ofer his dæg gyf Æˇelflæd leng lybbe ˇonne he ˇonne fo hio to ˇam lande æt Faccancumbe and ofer hyre dæ[g g]a hit eft an Eadwoldes hand 7 gif god wille ˇæt Eadwold weorˇe to ˇam ge[w]exen a'n' his fæder dæge ˇæt he land healdan mæge ˇene bid ic Eadmær ˇæt he him læte ˇara twega landa oˇer to oˇˇe æt Colleshyll[e] o∂ æt Ead[b]urggebyrig 7 ofer his dæg buta 7 hio wile ˇæt man finde æt Inggenesham[me h]ealfes. pundes wyrˇ'n'e saulsceat to Waneting for hy 7 æt Colleshylle 7 finde man of ˇam yrfe .LX. pene'g'ga wyr∂ to S'c'rifenanhamme .LX. to Colleshylle .LX. to Cillari∂e 7 freoge man Wulfware folgyge ˇam ˇe hyre leofo[st sy...]d ttry∂e ealswa 7 freoge man Wulfflæde on ˇæt gerad ˇæt hio folgige Æˇelflæde 7 Eadgyfe 7 hio becwi∂ Eadgyfe ane crencestran 7 ane sem[estra]ne oˇer hatte Edgyfu oˇer hatte Æˇelyfu 7 freoge man 'Gerburge' 7 Miscin 7 Hi...lf 7 Burhulfes dohtur æt C[in]nuc 7 Ælfsige 7 his wif 7 his yldran dohtor 7 Ceolstanes wif 7 æt Ceorlatune freoge man Pifus 7 Edwyn ... 7 ...ng wif 7 æt Faccancumbe frioge man Edelm 7 Man 7 Iohannan 7 'Sprow 7 his wif' 7 En.f...h 7 Gersande 7 'Snel' 7 æt Colleshylle freoge man Æˇelgyˇe 7 Bican wif 7 Æffan 7 B[e]dan 7 Gurhannes wif 7 freoge man Wulfwarei swystor Byrhsigis wi[f] 7 .......j ˇysne wyrhtan 7 'Wulfgyˇe Ælfswyˇe dohtor' 7 gif ˇær hwylc witeˇeow 'man' sy butan ˇyson ˇe hio geˇeowede hio gelyf'∂' to hyre bearnon ˇæt hi 'h'ine willon lyhtan for hyre saulle 7 Ælfwolde hyre twegen wesendhornas 7 an hors 7 hyre re'a'de ge[t]eld [7] hio becwy∂k Eadmære ane hlidfæsˇe cuppan oˇre Æ∂elflæde 7 bit ˇæt hi findon betweox him twa smicere scencingcuppan [i]nto beodern for hi oˇˇe hyre ahgene ieredan cuppan geiccon hy sy......l an anon punde ˇonne wolde hio ˇæt man dyde 'inn'on ægˇere cuppan healf pund penega 7 agyfe man Eadwolde his ag[e]ne .II. sylerenan cuppan; 7 hio becwi∂ him hyre goldfagan treowena[n] cuppan ˇæt he ice his beah mid ˇam golde oˇˇe hi mon æt him gehweorfe mid .XVI. mancussum reades reades goldes swa micel ˇær is to gedong 7 hio becwiˇ him twa mydrecan 7 ˇæraninnan an bedreaf eal ˇæt to anum bedde gebyre∂ 7 a'g'yfe Eadmær Eadwolde swa micel yrfe 7 swa fela manna swa...m him ær æt Hafene becwæ∂ 7 [h]en his fæder sy∂∂an swa he wille 7 be ˇan lande æt Cinnuc hit agon ˇa hiwan æt Sceaftesbyrig ofer hyre dæg 7 hio ah ˇæt yrfe 7 ˇa men ˇenne an hio ˇan hywum ˇara gebura ˇe on ˇam gafollande sitta∂ 7 ˇera ˇeowra manna hio an hyre syna dehter Eadgyfe 7 ˇæs yrfes butan ˇam saulsceatte ˇe man to Gifle syllan sceal 7 hio wile ˇæt man læte on ˇan lande standan .VI. ox's'an 7 .IIII. cy mid feower cealfon. 7 of [ˇa]m ˇeowan mannan æt Cinnuc hio becwi∂ Eadwolde Ceolstan Etstanes sunu 7 Æffan sunu 7 Burhwynne Mærtin 7 Hisfig 7 hio becwiˇ Ead[gy]fe ˇærangean Ælfsige ˇene coc 7 Ælfware Burgan dohtor 7 Herestan 7 his wif 7 Ecelm 7 his wif 7 hiora cild 7 Cynestan 7 Wynsige 7 Byrhtrices sunu 7 Edwynne 7 Buneles sunu 7 Ælfferer dohtor 7 hio becwi∂ Æ∂elf[læde]o Elhhelmmes dehter Ælfferes dohtor 'ˇa geonran' 7 hyre twilibrocenan cyrtel 7 oˇerne linnenne oˇˇe linnenweb 7 Eadgyfe twa mydrecan 7 ˇæranin[n]an hyre be't'sˇe bedwahrift 7 linnenne ruwan 7 eal ˇæt bedref ˇe ˇærto gebyre∂ 7p hyre betstan dunnan tunecan 7 hyre 'beteran' mentel 7 hyre twa tr'e'owenan gesplottude cuppan 7 hyre ealdan gewiredan preon is an .VI. mancussum. 7 sylle man hyre .IIII. mancussas of hyre sa......q bege 7 an lang healwahrift 7 oˇer sceort 7 ˇrio sethrægl 7 hio an Ceoldryˇe hyre blacena tunecena swa ˇer hyre leofre beo 7 hyre be't's∂ haliryft 7 hyre betsˇan bindan [7 Æˇelf]læder ˇisse Hwitan hyre cincda∂enan cyrtel 7 cuffian 7 bindan 7 finde Æ∂elflæd syˇˇan an hyre nun's'crude loce hwæt hio bets∂ mæge Wulfflæde 7 Æˇelgife 7 ice mid golde ˇæt hyra ægˇer hyru hæbbe .LX. peneng[a wyr]ˇ 7 Ceolwynne 7 Edburge ˇæt sy .XXX. penega wyrˇ 7 ˇær synt twa micle myd'e'rcan 7 an hræglcys∂ 7 an lytulu towmyderce 7 eac twa ealde mydercan ˇenne an hio Æˇelflæde on ælcum ˇingum ˇe ˇær unbecweden bi∂ on bocum 7 an swilcum lytlum 7 hio gelyf∂ [ˇ]æt hio wille hyre saulle geˇencan 7 ˇær synt eac wahriftu sum ˇe hyre wyr∂e bi∂ 7 ˇa læstan hio mæg syllan hyre wimmannon 7 hio becwi∂ Cynelufe hyre dæl ˇera wildera horsa ˇe mid Eadmære's' synt 7 hio an Æˇelflede hyre hy...ppes 7 ˇara andlumena 7 ealra ˇera getæsa ˇet ˇærbinnan beo∂ 7 eac ∂æs worˇiges gif his hyre se cing an swa swa Eadweard cing ær his Byrhtwynne hyre meder geuˇe 7 hæbbe Eadwold 7 his sweostor hyre taman hors g[e]'mæn' ...t his agene toforan. a Three letters missing. The first may be w, f, s, r or p. b Hole in MS. Kemble's emendation. c Space for about six letters. d Hole in MS. Space for about eight letters. e Tear in MS. Kemble's emendation. f Hole in MS. Space for seven or eight letters. g Gap and tear in MS. h Hole in MS. K., T. En[e]fætte. i Last letter uncertain. T. -a, K. -es. j Long gap and tear in MS. k y written over e l Gap for twelve or more letters, and tear. K. [n....ec..an], not now visible. m Small hole in MS. Space for two or possibly three letters. n Small hole. Space for one letter. o Hole in MS. This is a little wider than the space usually occupied by -læde. p There is a long gap in the MS. here, perhaps an erasure. q A long horizontal tear in MS. K., T. sa[ulesceatte...]. r Hole in MS. Kemble's emendation. s Corner of MS. missing. K. [sa....cu] but there is now no trace of this. t Corner of MS. missing.