A.D. 1020. Writ of Archbishop Wulfstan informing King Cnut and Queen Ælfgifu (Emma) that Æthelnoth has been consecrated to the see of Canterbury. English


Canterbury, Christ Church


1. London, British Library, Add. 14907, ff. 16v-17r (s. xviii)
2. London, Lambeth Palace Library, 1370, f. 69v (s. xi)


K, 1314, ex MS 1; Thorpe, p. 313; Earle, p. 232; Councils and Synods, no. 62 (p. 449)


Whitelock, EHD, no. 133 (pp. 601-2)

Printed and Translated:

Harmer, Writs, no. 27 (pp. 182-3), ex MS 2


Harmer, Writs, pp. 171, 448-9, authentic; Chaplais 1966, p. 17, probably an oral declaration recorded by Archbishop Æthelnoth for his own protection, unlikely that an 'original' documentary record of this declaration existed (= 1981, XV, p. 17); Chaplais 1966a, pp. 174-5 (= 1973, p. 59); Whitelock, EHD, p. 601, early copy of original letter; Councils and Synods, pp. 447-9; Brooks 1984, p. 290, cited; Ker, Catalogue, pp. 346-7 (no. 284), art. a, on MS 1

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    • + Wulfstan arcebiscop gret Cnut cyning his hlaford . 7 Ælfgyfe þa hlæfdian eadmodlice . 7 ic cyþe inc leof þæt we habbað gedon swa swa us swutelung fram eow com æt þam biscope Æþelnoþe . þæt we habbað hine nu gebletsod . Nu bidde ic for Godes lufon . 7 for eallan Godes halgan þæt ge witan on Gode þa mæþe . 7 on þam halgan hade . þæt he mote beon þære þinga wyrþe þe oþre beforan wæron Dunstan þe god wæs 7 mænig oþer þæt þes mote beon eall swa rihta 7 gerysna wyrðe . þæt inc byð bam þearflic for Gode . 7 eac gerysenlic for worolde .
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    • Archbishop Wulfstan greets King Cnut his lord and the lady Ælfgifu humbly. And I inform you both, beloved, that we have done, exactly as the declaration came from you to us, to Bishop Æthelnoth: [namely] that we have now consecrated him. Now I request, for the love of God and for all God’s saints, that you may show due honour to God and to the holy order: [namely] that he may be entitled to the things to which the others were previously [entitled]— Dunstan the Good, and many another: namely that this man likewise may be entitled to the rights and dignities. That will be of use to you before God and also be honourable in [the eyes of] the world.
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    Old Text

    • + Wulfstan arcebiscop gret Cnut cyning his hlaford. 7 Ælfgyfe ˇa hlæfdian eadmodlice. 7 ic cyˇe inc leof ˇæt we habba∂ gedon swa swa us swutelung fram eow com æt ˇam biscop Æˇelnoˇe. &